Posts Tagged ‘Populistpartier’

VAL Partier på högerkanten ser ut att bli framgångsrika i EU-valet i maj. Men det leder inte automatiskt till några framgångar nationellt.

The Economist 4-10 januari 2014

Och även om partierna skulle få möjlighet att påverka politiken även nationellt i större utsträckning än vad man gör idag är det inte säkert att de klarar av att hantera sådana maktpositioner.

Partierna på yttersta högerkanten är lika instabila som partierna på yttersta vänsterkanten. Den typen av partier har alltid bråkat minst lika mycket internt som med politiska motståndare.

Dessutom är många av populistpartiernas framgångar starkt kopplade till deras partiledares utstrålning.

Det är inte säkert att de partier som Marine Le Pen i Frankrike, Geert Wilders i Nederländerna och Nigel Farage i Storbritannien leder skulle överleva en period med mindre karismatiska ledare.

Frågan återstår dock hur de etablerade partierna skall hantera dessa partiers när de nu verkar kunna skörda framgångar i kommande Europaparlamentsval.

För att lyckas måste man först lära sig hur deras väljare tänker kring partierna. Att vifta t.ex. med högerspöket när det gäller Sverigedemokraterna är dömt att misslyckas.

Det är lika ineffektivt som om Alliansen nu skulle börja dra fram kommunistspöket för att varna för en eventuell medverkan av Vänsterpartiet i en kommande socialdemokratisk regering.

The Economist är inne på samma linje när man analyserar nationalistiska högern i Europa.

To raise the spectre of a return to 1930s fascism, however, is “not the right question,” argues Catherine Fieschi, director of Counterpoint, a British think-tank. Most of Europe’s populist parties either have no roots in the far right or have made a conscious and open effort to distance themselves from such antecedents. A better question is how far these parties can use popular dissatisfaction to reshape Europe’s political debate, and whether they can use that influence to win real power.


What they all have in common is that they are populist and nationalist, that they have strong views on the EU, immigration and national sovereignty, and that as a result they are doing very well in the polls.

The euro-zone crisis, and its aftermath, goes some way to explaining why—but it is far from a complete answer. The populist right is nowhere to be found in austerity-battered Spain and Portugal. But it thrives in well-off Norway, Finland and Austria. Between 2005 and 2013, according to calculations by Cas Mudde, at the University of Georgia, there are almost as many examples of electoral loss for parties of the far and populist right (in Belgium, Italy and Slovakia, among others) as there are of gain (in Austria, Britain, France, Hungary, the Netherlands).

But if euro-zone economics are not a full explanation, the crisis has been crucial to setting the scene for the potent new pairing of old nationalist rhetoric with contemporary Euroscepticism. Across Europe disillusion with the EU is at an all-time high: in 2007 52% of the public said it has a positive image of the EU; by 2013 the share had collapsed to 30%. The new identity politics is a way of linking the problems of Europe and those of immigration. It also taps into concerns about the way globalisation, defended by the mainstream political consensus, undermines countries’ ability to defend their jobs, traditions and borders.


Ms Fieschi at Counterpoint argues that the tension between the moderation needed for power and the outsider status that attracts a dispirited public makes such parties “fundamentally unstable” in a way that limits their growth. As Matthew Goodwin at Nottingham University points out, Austria’s Freedom Party imploded after it joined government in 2000 because it could not manage the conflict between protest and power. On this analysis, Europe’s populists may be near the height of their influence. Were the economy to recover and unemployment to drop, their message might fall on less receptive ground. Within the European Parliament, rivalry between them may thwart their high hopes for influence.

Läs mer: ”Europe’s Tea Parties, ledare i The Economist.

Tidskriftsomslag: The Economist den 4-10 januari 2014.


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